The government also held show trials with the intention of deterring others from revolutionary activity, but after cases such as the Trial of the where sympathetic juries acquitted many of the defendants this was abandoned.
Alexander II authorized the formation of committees "for ameliorating the condition of the peasants," and laid down the principles on which the amelioration was to be effected.
The result was the January Uprising of — that was suppressed after eighteen months of fighting. The serfs also could not keep the land they had worked — day and night — on and ended up getting bad quality land most of the time as their former owners kept the fertile, good quality land, and this unfair distribution of land led to even more hostility and disappointment.
The history of Russia is rich in revolts and opposition to the autocracy. At the time of the war serfs made up the majority of the army and were forced to serve for 25 years.
As the above obstacles suggest, the central issues at stake were land and control: The most crying abuses of the old judicial system were remedied by the judicial statute of To some extent, he was, of course, the representative of forces—intellectual, economic, and political—that were stronger than himself or, indeed, any single individual.
The dying emperor was given Communion and Last Rites. Serfs also had little reason to invest in their land, as part of it could later be taken and redistributed to other serfs when the population expanded.
Native languages, LithuanianUkrainian and Belarussianwere completely banned from printed texts, the Ems Ukase being an example. The government, afterhad reacted increasingly with repressive police measures.
On 3 Marchsix years after his accession, the emancipation law was signed and published. The first year of his reign was devoted to the prosecution of the Crimean War and, after the fall of Sevastopolto negotiations for peace led by his trusted counsellor, Prince Alexander Gorchakov.
Erected inwhen Finland was still a Russian grand duchy. There were in total incidents of peasants rioting following the Edict, with a notable example in Bezdna where a peasant urged his fellow serfs to seize land for themselves, and was then arrested and executed for his part in the disturbances that followed.
Alexander II succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in Russian culture was and language was forced upon all the people living in Russia, and Russian was the only language allowed to be taught in schools.
This disappointment led to hostile forces being unleashed.
Since private schools were often thought of as dangerous as the state had limited control on what they taught, they were made to follow a common curriculum.
Details of the Emancipation Edict February Serfs granted personal freedom within 2 years, allowing them to own land, marry without interference, use law courts and set up their own businesses. However, other radicals hoping for greater change argued that the reforms pleased no-one.
This left peasants with less land than before, paying redemption taxes beyond the productive value of the land for land they thought was theirs by right. The Athenians, led by Demosthenesvoted to seek alliance with Thebes against Macedonia.
The process of emancipating the serfs: The country had been exhausted and humiliated by the war. Historian Lionel Kochan described him as "the best prepared heir the Russian throne ever had".
Freed peasants were granted ownership of their houses and the plot of land they had worked on. According to the ancient sources, the two sides fought bitterly for some time.
Yet, notwithstanding these measures, it would be wrong, as is sometimes done, to describe Alexander II as a liberal.
There was also judicial reform. When the attending physician, Sergey Botkinwas asked how long it would be, he replied, "Up to fifteen minutes.
Marriages and children[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. This clearly shows the difficulties Alexander and his ministers faced in trying to emancipate the serfs. Alexander II considered such agreements paramount in avoiding the possibility of placing his country in a second disaster, similar to the Crimean War.
Dumas were also set up as urban counterparts, representing ordinary people for the first time, sparking a great hope for social development.
Merriweather Post, Hillwood, Washington, D. This also lead the serfs to become less willing to use newer methods of farming, as their land did not belong to them until they finished paying their redemption tax.The Success and Failure of Alexander III’s Rule Alexander III, seen by many as a reactionary Tzar, ruled Russia from Alexander was opposed to the stance his father Alexander II had taken in his approach to ruling Russia.
Alexander II was (and still is) very controversial discussed by historians, his reforms and their success as well. This essay will clarify the achievement of every reform, Alexander II established, and at the end there will be a conclusion.
In conclusion, Alexander II recognized the need to introduce reform from above to try and control the demand for change from below. He failed to reform and his opposition continued to grow, leading to his death in Alexander II came to the throne in March at the age of 36, having been well prepared and trained to take over from his father, Nicholas I.
Historian Lionel Kochan described him as "the best prepared heir the Russian throne ever had ". Alexander was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July BC, although the exact date is disputed, in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon.
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although. Alexander II came to the throne in March at the age of 36, having been well prepared and trained to take over from his father, Nicholas I.
Due to his father's wishes on his death bed Alexander was committed to retaining the autocratic powers of .Download