The Westerners were terrified; one wrote that it felt as if a huge wave was about to come crashing down on them. An eyewitness account of this episode from Robert of Clari, a northern French knight, represents an emerging genre of historical writing: Louis was defeated as well, but he did not withdraw to Damietta for months, preferring to besiege Mansourah, which ended in starvation and death for the crusaders rather than the Muslims.
It remained essential, therefore, for the Christians to launch a new campaign. Although the new emperor tried to make good his promises to the Crusaders, he soon ran short of money.
When the Crusade army arrived in Venice in the summer ofit was only one-third of its projected size. His lands, therefore, were subject to the protection of the papacy. An audacious attempt to destroy the Venetian fleet using fire ships almost succeeded.
Before the capture of the city, the Crusaders had decided that 12 electors 6 Venetians and 6 Franks should choose an emperor who would rule one-fourth of the imperial domain. To some men the prospects of land and loot were additional attractions. Egypt would, Louis thought, provide a base from which to attack Jerusalem, and its wealth and supply of grain would keep the crusaders fed and equipped.
They can fill open fields and mountains, their number like pebbles. The Crusaders made their final preparations on April 8. Instead, it was the next strata of society, the senior nobility, who took up the cross and prepared to journey to Jerusalem. Notably, a collection of laws, the Assises de Romanie Assizes of Romaniawas produced.
Plainly, this did not happen. The supreme irony is, therefore, that it was through the direct invitation of a Greek prince that the Fourth Crusade turned toward Constantinople.
Pope Innocent III would doubtless have objected to these arguments, but the churchmen in the Crusader army, dealing with their desperate position outside Constantinople, endorsed an attack as part of the Crusade. Anyone who wishes to fight the Turks is mad, for Jesus Christ does not fight them any more.
He tried to drag his brother back, but Aleaumes kicked him away and, putting his faith in God, squeezed through.
Foremost among these were the counts of Champagne, Blois, and Flanders. The shipwrights and carpenters created a fighting platform about ninety-six feet above the deck.
They struggled for supplies and faced ever-increasing hostility from the Greeks. The wind began to blow from the north, and this finally pushed their ships right up to the walls of Constantinople. Before we explore the reasons behind this victory, it is crucial to explain why the Fourth Crusade arrived at Constantinople.
Just over one hundred years earlier, in NovemberPope Urban II had issued a call to the knights of France to liberate the city of Jerusalem from Islam. In a tax was levied on all clerical incomes—later to become a precedent for systematic papal income taxes—and Fulk of Neuilly, a popular orator, was commissioned to preach.
One of the Crusade leaders certainly believed this: Nor was this to be wondered at, for never had so grand an enterprise been carried out by any people since the creation of the world. Soon they drove the Greeks from the tower; one small finger hold had been gained.
The agreement between Alexius IV and the Crusaders meant that the citizens of Constantinople were required to produce the huge sums of money promised to the Westerners.
He sent a contingent armed with pickaxes to try to break through. The young man had little political experience and lacked a solid local power base.
His comrade, Andrew Dureboise, was more fortunate and managed to resist the blows of the enemy long enough to allow others to join him. Representatives of Prince Alexius Angelos, a claimant to the throne of Byzantium, arrived at the Crusader camp.
The people of the West were horrified; the pope was said to have died of a heart attack, and his successor launched the Third Crusade.
For example, some historians have claimed Doge Dandolo was blinded on an earlier visit to Constantinople and now sought revenge. In any case, the emperor had lost the will to fight. Dandolo proposed that if the French would assist the Venetians in capturing the rebellious city of Zadar now in Croatiahe would be willing to suspend the outstanding debt until it could be paid in captured booty.
Clearly, this was a crisis for the Crusaders; for Doge Dandolo it represented a disaster, too. There were also many conflicts within Europe that kept its leaders from embarking on the Crusade.
It was a tempting offer for an enterprise that was short on funds. He had close family ties with both the Byzantine Empire and the Crusader states.The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople is an outstanding stand-alone history, but I would recommend reading it along with some other Crusade histories, as I did.
Thomas Asbridge's The First Crusade is an excellent companion piece to this history, as is Thomas Madden's New Concise History of the Crusades/5(47). Report abuse.
Transcript of Fourth Crusade. Fourth Crusade The Final major Crusade Jerusalem was conquered by Islamic armies in the second Crusade.
It was conquered by Saladin who was the king of the Islamic armies. - Crusaders declared war on Constantinople, and the fourth ended with the looting of the Byzantine capital in that.
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from to the Latin Empire set up after the Fourth Crusade asked for his help against the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea, and the Principality of Antioch and the Knights Templar wanted his help in Syria, where the Muslims had recently captured Sidon.
Fourth Crusade For a bibliographic essay on the Sources for the Fourth Crusade, see, Alfred Andrea, in Queller, Donald E., and Thomas F. Madden. The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople.
The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople written by Donald Queller and Thomas Madden provides the reader with a detailed account of the events of the Fourth Crusade. The twists and turns that were taken in order for Pope Innocent III's call for a crusade to have dissolved into the conquests of two Christian cities, Zara and /5(8).
Impeccably researched and beautifully told, Nicole Galland's Crossed is a stunning tale of the disastrous Fourth Crusade—and of the hopeful, brave, and driven who were caught up in and irrevocably changed by a corrupted cause and a furious battle beyond their comprehension or control.Download